It’s Monday morning, you’re sitting at your desk and an email from Fred arrives saying it’s his birthday, he’s brought in cakes, they’re on the table by the photocopier, enjoy! Next day, Jane brings some baklava back from Istanbul – help yourselves from the usual place. The next morning there are pastries left over from your meeting so you let colleagues know they’re up for grabs in meeting room 1. On Friday it’s the regular last Friday of the month Doughnut Day so everyone congregates at 4pm for a catch up over a doughnut.
This is a familiar pattern for many UK office workers according to new research into office cake culture1. The research surveyed nearly 1000 UK office workers and found that for the vast majority (86%) cake was available at least once or twice a week while for a quarter of respondents cake was available at least three or four times a week.
Workplace cake culture is a controversial and emotive topic with opinions revolving around its contribution to obesity-related ill health, freedom of choice/nanny state-ism, and its ability to boost morale. The new research cuts through the confusion and helps clarify what’s going on. And yes, office cake may have a role to play in workplace morale.
But don’t rush out to buy celebratory cupcakes just yet… because we need to make sure office cake culture develops in a way that really does boost morale. Unfortunately there is potential for it to do the opposite.
First the bad news
Nearly a third (31%) said they thought office cake had contributed to weight gain, 59% said it made it harder to stick to a diet and 38% said it made it harder to eat healthily in the workplace. Fundamentally, if cake is there people eat it – getting on for half (41%) said they often or always eat it if it’s available.
We can’t ignore the fact that cakes, pastries or chocolates mean extra sugar and calorie intake and, in a climate where 68% of the UK population is overweight or obese 2 this is not helpful to anyone’s health. One Tesco blueberry muffin (307 calories according to Tesco online grocery) twice a week for 48 weeks a year, is potentially an extra 29,000 calories, and sugary calories at that, which we know is linked to obesity and ill-health 3.
We spend between a third and two third of our waking hours at work so if our workplace environment is healthy it can play an important role in keeping us healthy. But if our workplace makes it hard to eat healthily, we’re more likely to become unwell. The new research shows that office cake culture changes employee eating habits, and therefore potentially undermines investment in health and wellbeing initiatives such as healthy options in the canteen and free exercise classes.
Now the good news
81% said office cake brings people together and 83% said it cheers everyone up. In fact research has found that workgroups who eat together tend to have higher co-operation, performance and trust 4,5,6 and eating together is associated with enhanced connection between eating companions 7,8. Certainly, the value of building relationships and cross fertilising ideas through socialising between colleagues is well-established and we all recognise the pleasure and sense of connection we get from eating with friends and family.
As Meik Wiking, CEO of the Happiness Research Institute in Copenhagen, points out, “[Food] feeds our friendships, bolsters our bonds and nourishes our sense of community – and those factors are vital to our happiness. Whether you look at the English word ‘companion’, the Spanish word ‘compañero’ or the French ‘copain’, they all originate from the Latin ‘com’ and ‘panis’ meaning ‘with whom one shares bread’.” 9
But, here’s a question. If cakes are displayed for long periods for people to help themselves to during the day (as is the case in most workplaces) does that provide sociable morale-boosting effects and companionship? Or does it just promote mindless grazing as people wander past? 62% were distracted by cake to some extent and 68% found it hard to resist even if they were not hungry or had just eaten a meal.
Some would say people should have better self-control but there’s robust evidence showing why this is not straightforward, but that’s for another blog. For the time being, it helps to understand that when we see something sweet and tasty (or see a picture or even think about it), our brain’s pleasure and reward systems kick in, urging us to seek out that reward. It’s a natural physical response that gets our mouth watering and our stomach juices flowing10,11. And if we want to rely on willpower, some (not all) researchers maintain12 that is in limited supply so don’t beat yourself up if cakes are still there at tea time and you succumb to a muffin.
So how can we harness the beneficial glow of companionship while minimising the potential health risks? This question is answered by one of the most powerful findings from the new research. When asked what was the ideal frequency for office cake, 95% of respondents said once a week or less. I’ll say that again: once a week or less. Getting on for half (41%) said once a month would be ideal – much less frequent than what most people experience currently.
A great opportunity
This presents a fantastic opportunity to make cake special again; a treat to look forward to. If 95% of the research respondents thought once a week or less was ideal, there’s a good chance that you and your colleagues feel similarly, whether you think cake is the work of the devil or a delicious way to break up the working day.
All that’s needed is a conversation among colleagues so you can work together create a cake plan that suits you (and your health) most of the time.
Importantly, there is no need for cake to be banned. The research does not suggest this is needed, as long as employees get a chance to discuss and understand what is going on. But what will help is if management instigates, encourages and supports the conversation. Research has found that when employees perceive that their management values employee health, employees tend to be healthier with lower BMI13,14. This encourages a virtuous circle of more healthy behaviours becoming the norm which in turn leads to healthier employees.
So, a happy workplace might involve cake. It should probably involve sociable get togethers. But cake doesn’t make a happy workplace if other factors aren’t right. You might find this diagram, from neuroendocrinologist and obesity expert Dr Robert Lustig, interesting. I’d have thought for a happy workplace, you’d need a range of factors leading to the scenario on the right, rather than a collection of people all independently experiencing the scenario on the left. After all, it’s probably a happy workplace we’re after rather than a pleasurable workplace.
Start the conversation!
- A short, confidential survey might be useful to help people say what they really think and help the conversation get started.
- Decide how often you want to have cake. What will you do if there are three birthdays in one week? What alternatives would work to thank or recognise someone?
- On cake day, store the cakes out of sight (and therefore out of mind) until cake time, then no one has to rely on willpower to resist them.
- Consider offering an alternative (fruit the most popular alternative to cake in the survey, followed by ‘cake, but less often’).
- Enjoy the cake while socialising with colleagues.
- Then put the cakes away, take them home, decide what to do with any left overs – but don’t leave them lying around.
This way, office cake becomes a real occasion … not just an every day, run of the mill occurrence that potentially harms health. Making cake an occasion gets people together to reap the benefits of eating together. Most importantly, it helps keep the workplace healthier by making the healthy choice the easy choice.
So whether you’re an employee or employer, start a conversation. What have you got to lose? (Other than the weight, obviously!)
- Walker, L. (2018). It’s time to rethink office cake. louwalker.com
- Health Survey for England. (2016). Health Survey for England, 2015.
- Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. (2015). Carbohydrates and Health.
- Kniffin, K., Wansink, B., Devine, C. & Sobal, J. (2015). Eating together at the firehouse: How workplace commensality relates to the performance of firefighters. Human Performance, 28(4).
- Allen-Arave, W., Gurven, M., & Hill, K. (2008). Reciprocal altruism, rather than kin selections, maintains nepotistic food transfers on an Ache reservation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(5)
- Mameli, M. (2013). Meat made us moral: a hypothesis on the nature and evolution of moral judgement. Biology & Philosophy, 28(6)
- Alley, T. (2012). Contaminated and uncontaminated feeding influence perceived intimacy in mixed-sex dyads. Appetite, 58(3)
- Kniffin, K., & Wansink, B. (2012). It’s not just lunch: Extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy. PLoS One, 7(7)
- Wiking, M. (2017). The Little Book of Lykke. The Danish search for the world’s happiest people. Pub: Penguin Random House, UK
- Ferriday, D & Brunstrom, J. (2011). ‘I just can’t help myself’: Effects of food-cue exposure in overweight and lean individuals. International Journal of Obesity, 35(1)
- Ramaekers, M., Boesveldt, S., Lakemond, C., van Boekel, M. & Luning, P. (2014). Odors: Appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time. International Journal of Obesity, 38(5)
- Hagger, M. S., Wood, C., Stiff, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2010). Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4)
- Tabak, R., Hipp, J. A., Marx, C., & Brownson, R. (2015). Workplace social and organizational environments and healthy-weight behaviors. PLoS One, 10(4).
- Lemon, S. et al. (2010). Step Ahead: A worksite obesity prevention trial among hospital employees. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 38(1).
Public Health England and Business in the Community have launched another excellent toolkit for employers: The physical activity, healthier eating and healthier weight toolkit.
The toolkit contains lots of great info and practical suggestions backed up by a rationale for why it makes sense for employers to safeguard and promote employee health and wellbeing. The investment really does translate into £££ on the bottom line.
I am particularly excited that the new toolkit mentions workplace cake culture. I researched office cake culture for my MSc in Obesity and Weight Management and the results found that office cake culture influences employee eating habits (negatively) and therefore potentially undermines organisations’ ROI on health and wellbeing spend. It is really important that employers recognise that cake culture makes it harder to eat healthily in the workplace and could result in increased employee health risk and lower workforce performance.
The toolkit recommends that employers ‘begin a conversation’ about cake culture. The good news is that my research now provides evidence to support this approach and, furthermore, suggests workplace cake consumption could be reduced in a collaborative way that would not ruffle any feathers. And it’s free.
Promoting healthier choices
The toolkit’s Healthy Eating chapter has a section called Promoting healthier choices which looks at how ‘employers can create a positive environment for food’. A checklist of positive practices features two points that struck a chord.
“Begin a conversation about how special events (birthdays, holidays, anniversaries, promotions) are marked at work. Can ‘cake days’ be shared, or healthier alternatives be provided?”
My survey of almost 1000 UK office workers found that 95% of respondents thought the ideal frequency for office cake was once a week or less. This is less frequent than cake was currently available for the vast majority. The research also found that fruit was considered the most popular cake alternative while the second most popular was ‘cake, but less often’. So yes, a conversation would help everyone realise having cake once a week or less might be a popular option.
“Provide healthier options at meetings and events”.
In my research, half (50.5%) the respondents thought meeting refreshments were not sufficiently healthy. In addition, the second most common reason for having cakes in the office after celebrations such as birthdays, was meeting left overs. So potentially we have a double whammy here that increases health risk and employee dissatisfaction, and pushes costs up. This has to be worth a conversation with employees (and clients?) about either ditching refreshments partially or altogether, or offering healthier alternatives.
I would also add that providing healthier eating choices and opportunity in the workplace is essential but the other crucial part of the formula is to remove the bad stuff. Providing a salad bar and free gym membership is is terrific but the effect is diminished if the rest of the office is a wall-to-wall cake fest. Removing the temptation of unhealthy (and arguably unnecessary) snacks can only enhance a wellbeing offering. And now we know that 95% think once a week or less is sufficient for office cake, getting agreement from employees to remove most of the cake for most of the time might be easier than many employers believe.
Eating together socially can be beneficial
The ‘Promoting healthier choices’ section also mentions research which highlights the importance of eating with family, friends and colleagues socially. Again, my research echoes this. 81% said office cake brings people together and 83% said office cake cheers people up. Getting together socially at work provides an opportunity for colleagues to network and build relationships which is valuable in any workplace. Reducing the frequency of office cake could therefore make it more of a special occasion to look forward to, which could enhance its social benefits even further.
I think a conversation is a great way to start. People aren’t daft – once they get talking they’ll sort out the details (eg what to do if there are three birthdays in one week!!!).
To get the conversation started, my website offers ideas including a free short questionnaire which can be circulated to find out how people think about cake in a given team, location or organisation.
If you would like to know more about the office cake research or how to help make your workplace healthier through briefings, lunch & learn sessions or workshops, get in touch: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit my website: louwalker.com.
You can also download the research report It’s time to rethink office cake from www.louwalker.com.
What an honour and what an experience!
As a graduate of the University of Chester I was invited to speak about the research into office cake culture I conducted as part of my MSc in Obesity & Weight Management. The event’s official theme was ‘Ideas connected’ and talks covered a range of topics including tackling plastic overuse, theatre as a tool in deradicalisation and ‘inventapreneurism’. But a common theme was that we need to start conversations about difficult situations to help people invest in the solutions.
My talk aimed to help people understand that obesity is more complicated than eating too much and moving too little, and examined the roles of our environment, social influencing and our neurophysiology in causing obesity. The main messages were:
1. By subtly changing the environments we are in control of, we can make it easier for ourselves to make healthy choices more often, without having to rely on willpower. By making our workplaces less obesogenic we could all make a significant improvement to public health in the UK.
2. We need to start a conversation with colleagues about how often we really want office cake. 95% of office workers thought the ideal frequency for office cake was once a week or less but this is less than the current availability in most workplaces. People don’t find it easy to speak up when colleagues are apparently enjoying cake (even if they don’t really want it)
3. Discuss with colleagues how we might get the benefits of getting together socially at work, without cake.
4. By starting a conversation about something specific like office cake, we can all contribute to tackling the wider obesity problem.
The final call to action was for employers, employees, students and group members to start a conversation about office cake. After all, we have nothing to lose but the weight, and we all have our health to gain.
I will update this blog with a link to the talk on youtube when it is available.
I was very excited when the email arrived saying my office cake research had been short-listed for an Inspiring Wellbeing Award. It’s obviously nice that one’s own work has been recognised, but even better when it’s recognised as being potentially useful.
Inspiring Wellbeing Awards are run in conjunction with the annual Wellbeing Symposium which focuses on wellbeing at work, in the community and for individuals.
The award was presented by Christine Hancock, director of C3 Collaborating for Health, a London-based global charity that addresses risk factors in non-communicable disease.
Said Christine, “C3 was delighted to be asked to help judge the Inspiring Wellbeing Awards. To see Lou’s important research on office cake consumption among the submissions was fantastic. We were so pleased to recommend her for an award and happy to see that colleagues agreed and her research was ‘Highly Commended’ by the panel of judges.”
Caption: (L-R), Christine Hancock, Lou Walker.
The Inspiring Wellbeing Awards are associated with the annual Wellbeing Symposium and recognise efforts to improve wellbeing in the workplace, communities and among individuals.
Whatever the outcome, it’s exciting that the potential of rethinking workplace cake culture is starting to be recognised.
You can find out more about the 2018 Wellbeing Symposium here.
When I was planning my office cake research, cake-related discussions with friends and colleagues often led to the same full and frank discussion.
Some argued that if you eat too much cake or other snacks (at work or elsewhere), you risk weight gain. This carries health risks for individuals and productivity-related consequences for employers. The counter-argument was that office cake provides a valuable chance for colleagues to take a break to catch up with colleagues and cross-fertilise ideas. Obviously, I had no idea what the research would tell us.
Well, the results suggest there’s merit in both positions and, more importantly, both provide insights that could help improve workplace health and wellbeing, physical and mental.
The research surveyed almost 1000 UK office workers about their attitudes, habits and opinions around workplace cake culture. Cake was available to most respondents (86%) at least ‘once or twice a week’. 31% said office cake had contributed to weight gain, 38% said it made it harder to eat healthily in the workplace and 59% said it made it harder to stick to a weight loss diet. Round one to the ‘office cake is bad’ camp.
But. 61% thought office cake was a good thing, 81% said it brings people together and 83% said it cheers people up. Round two to the ‘office cake is good’ camp.
So how often did the respondents think would be ideal for office cake? This is the ‘wow!’ piece of data that could make some real difference to workplace health. Almost all respondents (95%) said the ideal frequency for office cake was once a week or less. 41% said once a month.
Make workplace cake special again
So, the evidence is telling us that workplace cake affects many people’s efforts to eat healthily at work and control their weight, yet it also provides a popular way to boost morale and build relationships. But however they felt about workplace cake, almost all respondents considered cake once a week or less to be often enough.
Add all this together and what have we got?
The evidence suggests we could reduce workplace health risk and enhance social benefits while having office cake just once a week. And it seems this would be acceptable to the vast majority of employees.
To make this work we’d need small changes to the way office cake happens at most workplaces. For example, displaying cakes all day on a table in the main working area (as happens for nearly three quarters of respondents) encourages mindless grazing and doesn’t provide the social benefits people enjoy. Instead, choose a day and time for cake every week/month/whatever people agree. Until cake time, keep the cakes out of sight (and out of mind) in opaque cake tins, in cupboards. When cake o’clock has passed, pack the cakes away. This would make cake special again, a treat to look forward to and encourage social interaction. More ideas can be found in the research report It’s time to rethink office cake.
Employers can have confidence
This research investigated the opinions of office workers so might not translate to other working environments. Even so, I hope it gives organisations the confidence to at least start a conversation among colleagues so they can explore their own cake culture. There is a strong chance they will realise they are all in the “office cake is great, but once a week is enough” camp. Then they might feel able to discuss ways to make this happen. Supportive management can encourage and endorse but won’t need to regulate.
Develop a culture of health in the workplace
In 2013, the World Health Organisation calculated we spend two thirds of our waking hours at work. So a healthy working environment makes a significant contribution to overall public health. And starting a conversation about office cake culture is a giant step in a healthier direction.
Find out more about the research, how to start a conversation and what small changes can help organisations rethink office cake culture harmoniously at www.louwalker.com.